Strength & Conditioning Resources

"Home of Champions"

Long-Term Athletic Development

  1. Long-Term Athletic Development pathways should accommodate for the highly individualized and non-linear nature of growth and development of youth.
  2. Youth of all ages, abilities, and aspirations should engage in long-term athletic development programs that promote both physical fitness and psychosocial well-being.
  3. All youth should be encouraged to enhance physical fitness from early childhood, with a primary focus on motor skills and muscular strength development.
  4. Long-term development pathways should encourage an early sampling approach for youth that promotes and enhances a broad range of motor skills.
  5. Health and well-being of the child should always be the center of long-term athletic development programs. 
  6. Youth should participate in physical conditioning that helps reduce the risk of injury to ensure their on-going participation in long-term athletic development programs. 
  7. Long-term athletic athletic development programs should provide all youth with a range of training modes to enhance both health- and skill-related components of fitness. 
  8. Practitioners should use relevant monitoring and assessment tools as part of a long-term physical development strategy. 
  9. Practitioners working with youth should systematically progress and individualize training programs for successful long-term athletic development. 
  10. Qualified professionals and sound pedagogical approaches are fundamental to the success of long-term athletic development programs. 
10 Pillars of LTAD Success
What is LTAD: An Introduction for Parents
LTAD, Youth Resistance Training, & Early Sport Specialization
Long-Term Athletic Development Position Statement

Androgen & Human Growth Hormone Use

Androgen Use
  1. Since 1990, the use of androgens for a non-medical purpose is illegal. Androgens are labeled as a schedule III drug. Possession of any schedule III substance including androgens is punishable by fine, prison time, or both. Prescribing androgens for bodybuilding or enhanced athletic performance is also punishable as noted above.
  2. Potential adverse effects of androgen use in men include suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, mood and behavior disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hepatic dysfunction with oral androgens, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, acne, gynecomastia, and withdrawal after discontinuation. In addition, the polypharmacy of many androgen users (psychoactive and accessory drugs) may have serious adverse effects of their own.
  3. The adverse effects of androgen administration in women are similar to those noted in men. In addition, women using androgens may also experience virilizing side effects such as enlargement of the clitoris, deepening of the voice, hirsutism, and changes in body habitus. These changes may not be reversible on cessation of androgen use.
  4. In pre- and peripubertal children, androgen use may lead to virilization, premature epiphyseal closure, and resultant adult short stature.
Human Growth Hormone Use
  1. Combined administration of hGH and resistance exercise training is associated with minimal gains in lean body mass, muscle size, and maximal voluntary strength in men compared with resistance exercise alone. 
  2. Potential adverse events include suppression of the hypothalamic pituitary GH/IGF-1 axis, water retention, edema, increased intracranial pressure, joint and muscle aches, and those of needle injection (hepatitis and HIV/AIDS). These should be the same in women as well as in men.
  3. Continued effort should be made to educate athletes, coaches, parents, physicians, and athletic trainers along with the general public on androgen and hGH use and abuse. Educational programs should focus on potential medical risks of these illegal performance-enhancing drugs use, optimizing training programs and concurrent nutritional strategies to enhance physiological adaptation and performance. In addition, educating coaches on setting realistic training goals and expectations for their athletes will help reduce the pressures to use illegal PED and assist in potentially identifying potential users of illegal PED. 
Androgen and Human Growth Hormone Position Statement

youth resistance training

  1. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program is relatively safe for youth.
  2. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can enhance the muscular strength and power of youth.
  3. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can improve the cardiovascular risk profile of youth.
  4. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can improve motor skill performance and may contribute to enhanced sports performance of youth.
  5. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can increase a young athlete’s resistance to sports related injuries.
  6. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can help improve the psychosocial well-being of youth.
  7. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can help promote and develop exercise habits during childhood and adolescence.
Youth Resistance Training Position Statement